Images of Hate: A Methodology for Analysing Visual Extremism – Keighley Perkins

For an enlarged version, click on the poster or download file:

Abstract page

Bios page


1.How effective is the proposed methodology in analysing the collected data?

2.What alternative methodologies can be applied to this dataset?


  • Lauren O'Hagan

    Hi Keighley, Thanks for sharing your poster. I really enjoyed reading about your research. I like the idea of combining multimodal analysis with DNVA as I think that they are complementary and that DNVA can address some of the shortcomings of multimodality, particularly concerning context, ideologies, target audiences etc. I wondered if you had also considered multimodal critical discourse analysis as a possible methodology? And if so, what made you opt for a combination of multimodality and DNVA instead?

    I would also be interested to hear more about the types of extremist groups that you will be looking at? Have you chosen these groups yet and if so, how did you come to your decision?


  • Ruth M

    Hi Keighley,
    Just to say, excellent poster! I love the design and data visualisations – they are super effective.


  • Emily Powell

    I agree -a really clear poster with easy to follow visuals. Have you done a pilot study, and if so how did it go?

  • Kate Barber

    Hi Keighley
    This is such an interesting area to research and I love your poster. It’s a very tricky area to study but I think the approach you’ve taken here would work really well. I think Lauren’s suggestion about multimodal critical discourse analysis might be worth looking into. It would be great to meet up at some point and have a chat about our research as there are some interesting overlaps.

    By the way, in case you haven’t seen it, Miller-Idriss has done some great work on the cultural imagery of the far right and how this relates to identity, for example in this book


  • Kate Kavanagh

    Hi Keighley, thanks for the poster! And welcome to Cardiff ;) Your presentation and layout are really clear, and I LOVE your Multimodal Analysis graphic panel! Like Lauren, I was wondering how you were going to identify and select the extremist groups for your study. It made me think of some network mapping work Kate Barber (presenting here) did on online extremist groups. Might be worth connecting with her on that if you haven’t already?
    I think your point about the DNVA framework not necessarily encompassing the values present in social media communication is a very good one. DNVA seems like a good starting point, but perhaps your work will also make a contribution towards extending the scope of Discursive Values Analysis to domains other than News by identifying other relevant parameters? Cheers!

  • Gerard O'Grady

    Hi Keighley, Like the others I agree this is a very clear and informative poster and I’m glad to see how much the project has moved on since I last heard it. Reading through it I wondered if there are any common tropes across extremist discourse or if each group reuses tropes with particular resonances in their own sub culture. As such thinking about the work of Lemke, who you referenced, could you find (i) the same formal features realising very different meanings in different contexts and (ii) if the use of a particular trope predicts the use of another trope in particular contexts?

  • Keighley Perkins

    Hi everyone,

    Thank you so much for all of your comments! I hope you don’t mind me responding to them all in one go rather than separately :)

    Lauren: I made the decision to study Generation Identity based on feedback from law enforcement. I hadn’t really thought about using multimodal critical discourse analysis, but I will definitely do some reading around this area. Thanks for the feedback!

    Emily: I haven’t yet started my pilot study. I was just getting my head around the data when COVID-19 struck, but I’m really looking forward at getting stuck into some analysis!

    Kate Barber: Thank you so much for the comments. I would love to meet up and share ideas. Your research sounds incredibly interesting and I’d really appreciate any advice that you have about exploring this kind of data. Thank you, as well, for the book reference. I’ll try to hunt it down.

    Kate Kavanagh: Thank you for the lovely comments. I’m identifying which groups to study based on conversations with law enforcement. It would definitely be interesting to see what kinds of values are manifested on social media and how these get embedded into extremist identities. I’m currently thinking that whatever values they emphasise on social media are the ones that they feel are key to their group’s identity.

    Thank you again, everyone, for your comments! I really appreciate your feedback.

  • Lauren O'Hagan

    Just a follow up, Keighley, if you did want to read more on MCDA, I highly recommend the following:

    Machin, D. 2013. What is multimodal critical discourse analysis?, Critical Discourse Studies 10(4), pp. 347-355.
    Machin, D. and Mayr, A. 2012. How to Do Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multimodal Introduction, London: SAGE.
    Ledin, P. and Machin, D. 2018, ‘Multi-modal critical discourse analysis,’ in Flowerdew, J. and Richardson, J. (eds.), The Handbook of Critical Discourse Studies, London: Routledge.

    Best of luck with your research :)

  • Sabrina Toumi

    That’s a great poster, Keighley. I like the way you designed it. Your topic is very interesting. As Lauren suggested, since you will be at the ideological intent in your data, I think that David Machin’s works would be useful.

    All the best

  • Debbie Cabral

    Hi, Keighley!
    Identity construction is one of the areas I am most interested in! I am looking forward to see more about your research in the future. On the construction of collective identities, and if you follow the critical discourse analysis path, can I suggest:
    van Dijk, T. (2010) Political Identities in Parliamentary Debates . In C. Ilie (ed.) European Parliaments under Scrutiny: discourse strategies and interaction practices. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co, pp. 29-56?
    All the best

  • Katharine Young

    Hi Keighley, thanks for sharing your poster – your research sounds super interesting! I don’t have anything useful to contribute, but I look forward to hearing more about your research in future :)

  • Chris Heffer

    Hi Keighley. Fascinating topic and great poster. I look forward to hearing more. Chris

  • Lisa El Refaie

    Hi Keighley, I agree that this is a very well presented poster, and an important and interesting topic. Can I just mention something unrelated to your specific research methodology? I think if you will be exposed to extremist material over a long period of time you may need to consider how to protect your own mental health, as it can be quite traumatizing. Perhaps some of the other PhD students who have been working on particularly distressing topics for a while might have some experiences and/or advice to share?

  • Keighley Perkins

    Lauren: Thank you so much for the references. I’ve added them to my reading list and I’m looking forward to getting stuck into them

    Sabrina: Thank you. I’ve started doing a surface level analysis of Machin’s work, but I’m beginning to feel like my work would benefit from more of a deep dive.

    Debbie: Thank you so much for the recommendation! I’ve added it to my list. There’s already quite a bit of van Dijk on it but that’s one work that I haven’t made a note of yet.

    Katharine and Chris: Thank you for the feedback

    Lisa: Thank you for your comment. Researcher wellbeing has been something that my supervisory team and I have thought a lot about. I’m already engaging with the wellbeing team at my university but I would be very interested to hear what other strategies people were using. It’s an incredibly important area to consider when doing research like this.

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